*Physics Formulas in Optics*
Optics is one of the oldest branches of physics. There are
many important optics physics formulas, which we need frequently in solving
physics problems. Here are some of the important and frequently needed optics
formulas.

*Snell's Law*
Sin i

Sin r = n2

n1 = v1/v2

i is angle of incidence

r is the angle of refraction

n1 is refractive index of medium 1

n2 is refractive index of medium 2

v1, v2 are the velocities of light in medium 1 and medium 2
respectively

Gauss Lens Formula:

1/u + 1/v = 1/f

where

u - object distance

v - image distance

f - Focal length of the lens

Lens Maker's Equation

The most fundamental property of any optical lens is its
ability to converge or diverge rays of light, which is measued by its focal
length. Here is the lens maker's formula, which can help you calculate the
focal length of a lens, from its physical parameters.

1 / f = [n-1][(1 / R1) - (1 / R2) + (n-1) d / nR1R2)]

Here,

n is refractive index of the lens material

R1 is the radius of curvature of the lens surface, facing
the light source

R2 is the radius of curvature of the lens surface, facing
away from the light source

d is the lens thickness

If the lens is very thin, compared to the distances - R1 and
R2, the above formula can be approximated to:

(Thin Lens Approximation) 1 / f ≈ (n-1) [1 / R1 - 1 / R2]

Compound Lenses

ALSO READ Fundamental Physical Constants

The combined focal length (f) of two thin lenses, with focal
length f1 and f2, in contact with each other:

1 / f = 1 / f1 + 1 / f2

If the two thin lenses are separated by distance d, their
combined focal length is provided by the formula:

1 / f = 1 / f1 + 1 / f2 - (d / f1 - f2))

Newton's Rings Formulas

Here are the important formulas for Newton's rings
experiment which illustrates diffraction.

nth Dark ring formula: r2n = nRλ

nth Bright ring formula: r2n = (n + ½) Rλ

where

n is the nth ring radius

R is the Radius of curvature of the lens

λ is
Wavelength of incident light wave

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