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Friday, 10 February 2017

Physics Formulas and terms in Optics

Physics Formulas and terms in Optics
Physics Formulas in Optics 
Optics is one of the oldest branches of physics. There are many important optics physics formulas, which we need frequently in solving physics problems. Here are some of the important and frequently needed optics formulas.
Snell's Law 
Sin i

Sin r = n2
n1 = v1/v2
i is angle of incidence
r is the angle of refraction
n1 is refractive index of medium 1

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n2 is refractive index of medium 2
v1, v2 are the velocities of light in medium 1 and medium 2 respectively

Gauss Lens Formula:
1/u + 1/v = 1/f
where
u - object distance
v - image distance
f - Focal length of the lens

Lens Maker's Equation


The most fundamental property of any optical lens is its ability to converge or diverge rays of light, which is measued by its focal length. Here is the lens maker's formula, which can help you calculate the focal length of a lens, from its physical parameters.
1 / f = [n-1][(1 / R1) - (1 / R2) + (n-1) d / nR1R2)]
Here,
n is refractive index of the lens material
R1 is the radius of curvature of the lens surface, facing the light source
R2 is the radius of curvature of the lens surface, facing away from the light source
d is the lens thickness
If the lens is very thin, compared to the distances - R1 and R2, the above formula can be approximated to:
(Thin Lens Approximation) 1 / f (n-1) [1 / R1 - 1 / R2]

Compound Lenses


The combined focal length (f) of two thin lenses, with focal length f1 and f2, in contact with each other:
1 / f = 1 / f1 + 1 / f2
If the two thin lenses are separated by distance d, their combined focal length is provided by the formula:
1 / f = 1 / f1 + 1 / f2 - (d / f1 - f2))

Newton's Rings Formulas

Here are the important formulas for Newton's rings experiment which illustrates diffraction.
nth Dark ring formula: r2n = nRλ
nth Bright ring formula: r2n = (n + ½) Rλ

where
n is the nth ring radius
R is the Radius of curvature of the lens

λ is Wavelength of incident light wave

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