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Saturday, 4 February 2017

Newtons laws of universal gravitation

Newton's law of universal gravitation 
Newton's law of universal gravitation states that every point mass in the universe attracts every other point mass with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
 F= G  m1 m2  / r2
where


F is the force between the masses,



G is the gravitational constant (universal gravitational constant, Newton's constant)

G is  6.674×1011Nm2kg2

m1 is the first mass,

m2 is the second mass, and


r is distance between the centers of the masses.

Weight

Weight of an object is the force on the object due to gravity.

It is the product of the mass m of the object and the magnitude of the local gravitational acceleration g ( 9.81m/sec² near the surface of the Earth)

W = m g


Weight and mass: Mass is an "extrinsic" property of matter, whereas weight is a force that results from the action of gravity on matter: it measures how strongly the force of gravity pulls on that matter.

The SI unit of weight is the same as that of force: the Newton (N) which can also be expressed as kg·m/s2



Density

The mass density or density of a material is its mass per unit volume.

P = m / V


Different materials usually have different densities. The mass density of a material varies with temperature and pressure.

The density of gases is strongly affected by pressure. The density of an ideal gas is


MP / RT

where M is the molar mass, P is the pressure, R is the universal gas constant (8.314 JK1mol1 ) and T is the absolute temperature.


This means that the density of an ideal gas can be doubled by doubling the pressure, or by halving the absolute temperature.

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