Force is any influence that causes an object to undergo a
certain change in its movement, direction, or geometrical construction. A force has both magnitude and direction, making it a vector
quantity.

its reference point. Motion is observed by attaching a frame of reference to a
body and measuring its change in position relative to another reference frame.
An object's motion cannot change unless it is acted upon by
a force, as described by Newton's first law.

Velocity is the rate of change of the position
(displacement) of an object, equivalent to a specification of its speed and
direction of motion.

Speed describes only how fast an object is moving; whereas
velocity gives both how fast and in what direction the object is moving.

Velocity is a vector physical quantity; both magnitude and
direction are required to define it.

*Acceleration*
If there is a change in speed, direction, or both, then the
object is said to have a changing velocity and is undergoing an acceleration.

The rate of change of velocity is "acceleration"
(in m/s2), which describes how an object's speed and direction of travel change
at each point in time.

__Equation of motion__
The average velocity of an object moving through a
displacement, d during a time interval, t is

d / t

Average velocity magnitudes are always smaller than or equal
to average speed of a given particle.

The final velocity v of an object which starts with velocity
u and then accelerates at constant acceleration a for a period of time t is:

v = u + at

The average velocity of an object undergoing constant
acceleration is

(u+v) / 2

To find the position, x, of such an accelerating object
during a time interval, t, then:

(u+v) t / 2

When only the object's initial velocity is known, the
expression is

x = u t + ½at²

These basic equations for final velocity and position can be
combined to form an equation that is independent of time, also known as
Torricelli's equation:

v ² = u² + 2 a x

__Relative velocity__
Relative velocity is a measurement of velocity between two
objects as determined in a single coordinate system.

If an object A is moving with velocity vector v and an
object B with velocity vector w, then the velocity of object A relative to
object B is defined as the difference of the two velocity vectors:

V (A relative to B) = v –
w

Similarly the relative velocity of object B moving with
velocity w, relative to object A moving with velocity v is:

V (B relative to A) = w - v

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