Electrostatic force is a conservative force, i.e., the work
done by the force in moving a unit test charge from one point to another, is
independent of the path.

*Unit of Potential*
J/C is called volt

Potential is a scalar quantity.

Potential Function satisfies Superposition Principle

ALSO READ Electric lines of forces

The gradient of potential gives the electric field.

Potential difference:

The electric potential difference is the difference in
electric potential (V) between the final and the initial location when work is
done upon a charge to change its potential energy.

Electric potential at a point due to a point charge:

Let be an isolated
point charge situated in air at O. P is a point at a distance r from . Consider
two points A and B at distances from the
point O.

ALSO READ Introduction to charges

The potential difference between A and B is,

The negative sign indicates that the work is done against
the electric force.

The electric potential at the point P due to the charge is the total work done in moving a unit
positive charge from infinity to that point.

Two charges at A and
at B separated by a small distance 2d constitute an electric dipole and
its dipole moment is p. Let P be the point at a distance r from the midpoint of
the dipole O and θ be the

ALSO READ Newtons laws of universal gravitation

angle between PO and the axis of the dipole OB. Let r1 and r2 be the distances
of the point P from and charges respectively.

Potential at P due to charge

Potential at P due to charge

Total potential at P due to dipole is,

Applying cosine law,

By substituting and simplifying,

Special cases :

1. When the point P lies on the axial line of the dipole on
the side of , then

2. When the point P lies on the axial line of the dipole on
the side of , then

3. When the point P lies on the equatorial line of the dipole,
then,

Equipotential Surface:

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If all the points of a surface are at the same electric
potential, then the surface is called an equipotential surface.

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