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Friday, 27 January 2017

An example of term paper (mouau example) on corruption

An example of term paper (mouau example)
MICHEAL OKPARA UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE UMUDIKE
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF YOUR DEPERTMENT NAME
A TERM PAPER WRITTEN IN PARTIAL FUFILLMENT
OF THE
REQUIREMENT OF THE COURSE,

GSS111



(USE OF ENGLISH)

TOPIC:

CORRUPTION AND UNDER DEVELOPMENT (CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA)
BY

YOUR NAME HERE

YOUR REG NUMBER
LECTURERS:
PROF.N.OKE
DR. G.C.NZEAGWU
MRS. N. I. UGO-OCHIULO
R. I. NZEADIBE
MRS. O. OKO
MRS. N.H.EDEH
MRS. C. N. INEKWE
MRS. CHINEMEREM OBASI
MISS IHUNANYACHI ABAFO
MISS CHIOMA ANICHO

JANUARY, 2016



















DEDICATION



THIS TERM PAPER IS DEDICATED TO THE ALMIGHTY GOD
THE GIVER OF LIFE AND WISDOM

















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ACKNOWLEDEMENT

                   I owe a deep gratitude to my parents for their guidance, advice and contributions toward making this term paper huge success. My thanks also go to the head of department and other lecturers in the department for their encouragement and direction without which the success of this work wouldn’t have been possible.
                  Above all I thank God for his grace.




















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ABSTRACT (PREFIX)
            This term paper has been carefully articulated about corruption and its outcome under development in Nigeria .T he contents are based on the causes, consequences and definitions of corruption and underdevelopment
           This article is presented in five chapters covering the definition of corruption and underdevelopment, types and the forms of corruption, causes of corruption and underdevelopment, solutions and remedies for corruption and underdevelopment in our dear country Nigeria
           The author possesses immeasurable wealth of experience and knowledge in the areas of corruption and underdevelopment, therefore simplified all terms and explanations for easy understanding for readers    

















IV







TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction
1.2 Definition of corruption
1.3 Definition of underdevelopment
1.4 Corruption and under development in Nigeria

CHAPTER TWO
1.4 Types or forms of corruption
1.5 Causes of corruption
1.6 Causes of underdevelopment

CHAPTER THREE
1.7 Solutions and remedies for underdevelopment in Nigeria.
1.8 Some past Nigerian leaders and their corruption scandals

CHAPTER FOUR
1.9 Consequences of corruption in Nigeria
2.0 consequences of underdevelopment in Nigeria

CHAPTER FIVE
2.1 Solutions and possible remedies for corruption in Nigeria
2.2 List of anti corruption agencies in Nigeria
2.3 Roles of anti corruption agencies in reducing corruption
2.4 Roles of universities schools and religious organizations in reducing corruption

CONCLUSION

REFRENCES




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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
                  Though corruption is difficult to define precisely and harder still to quantify, it is undoubted one of the most wide spread forms of criminal victimization in today’s world and in its most serious forms it is properly as a form of state crime rather than individual deviance. Also corruption is one of the biggest global issues ahead of extreme poverty, unemployment and rise in the cost of food items and energy, climate change and terrorism. It is thought to be one of the principle causes of poverty around the globe. Its significance in the contemporary world cannot be overestimated. Corruption is as old as humanity itself, and the international community has only highlighted its problem in the past two decades. It explores the phenomenon from various perspectives and cultural differences.                                                                                     


1.1 DEFINITION OF CORRUPTION
                   According to oxford advance learners dictionary sixth edition ,corruption is defined as a dishonest or illegal behavior especially of people in authority, it also defined corruption as an act of impairing integrity ,virtue and moral and a state of being corrupt or debased which involves loss of purity which in turn leads to wickedness and bribery. In support of the above definitions, transparency international defined corruption as an abuse of entrusted power for private gain. Also google and yahoo researches defined corruption as any abuse of a position of trust to gain an unfair advantage and rightly stated that corruption is fraudulent.
                  Corruption and under development on the other hand have worked hand in hand for several years, in the sense corruption leads to under development .in order to support the
Above statement an online dictionary defined corruption as the destruction of data by manipulating the parts of it either by deliberate, accidental human action or by imperfection in          1




Storage or transmission media. It also can be an act of changing or of being changed for worse and a departure from what is pure simple or correct which can be corruption of style, corruption in language .it is also taking something that is evil, bad to be good as seen in Nigeria and other African countries.
                   Corruption can occur in form of bribery, bribe solicitation or exhortation, double dealing under the table transactions manipulating election figures and accepting money to declare wrong results, diverting funds and defrauding investors .corruption is a complex social political and economic phenomenon .the global program against corruption targets with vulnerable depending on transitional economics by prompting anti corruption measures in the public sphere.

1.2 DEFINITION OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT

                  Underdevelopment can be defined as a state and condition of being in sufficiently developed. Under development also involves stunted growth and retardation. Merriam Webster explained underdevelopment as a state of having relative low economic level of industrial production and standard of living. Under development can be experienced in countries, human beings institutions and business organizations. In countries underdevelopment can be experienced industrially, economically, structurally while in human beings it is a function of any society or group ravaged by corrupt practices will remain perpetually backward
                   According to Walter Rodney underdevelopment should not be erroneously conceived to be the absence of development but the low level of development of a nation in comparison with other states at a given time. Under development is characterized with low   
Industrialization and low input and output of labour in ratio to men, poor and low social services. A comprehensive look at under developed countries reveals that certain factors keep
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These nation or sates underdeveloped which are acceptance of the language of the colonial masters, political instability and insurgency. Generally the answer to the question what or who is the cause of underdevelopment is corruption
                Economically underdevelopment is when resources are not used to their full. The world consist of a number of poor and underdeveloped countries such as Nigeria ,other African and third world countries which are suffering from underdevelopment and stagnancy

1.3 CORRUPTION AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

                        Nigeria is a country in western Africa and also the most populated country in Africa has suffered lots of setbacks which include underdevelopment, insecurity, insurgency and many others. History and records have shown that, the main cause of the above listed setbacks is corruption. According to Professor Muhammad muzali jibril corruption in Nigeria started when Nigeria was amalgamated in the year 1914. He also stated hat towards 1960 hen Nigeria had her independence that our nationalists who are regarded as fathers of the nation were each accused of various degree of corruption with various degree of justification.
                         However the cases of corruption during independence were sometimes clouded by political infightings, for instance Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe was the first major political figure investigated for questionable practices .in 1914 in western Nigeria a politician named Adegoke Adelabi was investigated following the charges of political corruption leveled against him by the opposition which led to demand for his resignation as a district head
                       President Muhammad Buhari defined corruption as the greatest form of human right violation since the creation of modern public administration in the country. The government has aimed at curtaining corruption through the enactment of laws and the enforcement of integrity systems but success has been slow in Nigeria. As at 2012 Nigeria is estimated to have lost over four hundred billion us dollars to corruption since independence .
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Some writers have written about different potential causes of flagrant graft that exist in Nigeria , man blame greed and ostentatious life styles as a potential root cause of corruption. The customs and attitude of the society may also be a contributing factor, gift given as expression of loyalty or tribute to traditional rulers may be fabrics of the society. Also a political environment that excludes favour towards elites or wealthy citizens may also be influenced by corruption. Wealthy elites may result to sleaze in other to get power and protect their interest. In Nigeria another cause of corruption is ethnicity called tribalism. Also friends and kinsmen seeking favour from officials may impose difficult strain on the ethnical disposition of the officials. Many kinsmen may see a government official as holding Necessary Avenue for their personal survival or gain.
               Underdevelopment on the other hand is the outcome of corruption. In an underdeveloped country like Nigeria there is low provision of social amenities like poor road network, poor health facilities and also poor educational facilities, housing and unemployment. Vanguard news paper on an article stated some of the reasons why Nigeria is underdeveloped and some of this reasons are misuse of the resources, tribalism unemployment and recently insurgency and insecurity were added to the reasons.





    




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CHAPTER TWO
1.4 TYPES OF CORRUPTION
           There are about five types of corruption which are
1. Systemic corruption:
                     As opposed to exploiting occasional opportunities endemic or systemic corruption is when corruption is an integrated and essential aspect of the economy, social and political system. When it is embedded in a wider situation that helps sorting it. It is also not a special category of corrupt practices, but radar a situation in which the major institutions and processes of the state are routinely dominated and used by corrupt individuals or group, and in which most people have no alternatives in dealing with corrupt officials. Examples might include Nigeria, Kenya, Cameroon and many others

2. Sporadic (individual corruption:
                     Sporadic corruption is the opposite of systemic corruption. It occurs irregularly and therefore it does not threaten the mechanism of control nor the economy as such .it is not crippling but it can seriously undermine moral and sap the economy and resources

3. Political corruption:
                    Political corruption is any transaction between private and public sectors through which collective groups are illegitimately converted into private regarding pay offs. Political corruption is often used simultaneously ‘’grand’’ or high level corruption, distinguished from bureaucratic or petty corruption because it involves political decision makers. Political corruption takes place at the high level of the political system, when politicians and state agencies entitled to make and enforce the laws in the home of the people are using this authority to sustain their power, status and wealth. Political corruption not only leads to the miss allocation of resources but it also perverts the manners in which decisions are made
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Political corruption is when the laws, rules and regulations are abused by the rulers .it is when the legal basis against which corrupt practices are usually evaluated and judged, are week and further more subject to downright and encroachment by the rulers.

4. Grand corruption:
            Grand corruption takes place at the policy formulation; it refers not such much to the amount of money involved as to the level in which it takes place. Grand corruption is at the top level of the public sphere, where politics and rules are formulated in the first place. Usually (but not always) synonymous to political corruption

5. Petty corruption:
              Small scale, bureaucratic or petty corruption is the everyday corruption that takes place at the implementation end of politics where the public officials meet the public. Petty corruption is bribery in connection with the implementation of existing laws, rules and regulations and thus different form grand or political corruption, petty corruption refers to the modest sum of money usually involved and has also been called low level and ‘’street levels’’ to name the kind of corruption people can experience more or less duty, In their encounter with public administration and services like hospitals schools and so on

1.5 CAUSES OF CORRUPTION
      There are various causes of corruption which include the following below

1. Low pay of wages:
             Most of the employees in government sector are paid low wages and salaries . Hence some employees will revert to corruption for more financial benefits
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2. Low job opportunities:
             This is another cause of corruption. Due to lack of job opportunities at will, there are many people who like to go for corruption mode to get the job offer .they will be ready to pay lump sum amount for the job offer to the higher officials or politicians

3. Lack strict and fat punishment:
        Even if someone is found guilty or even caught red handed by the anti corruption officials or media the convict get less punishment. First they will be suspended for few months or weeks and reposted to another location with the same job grade and pay .so this means the officials who did the corrupt practice is given free license to continue his practice.
        If the government is so strict that any such corrupt incidence will lead to permanent removal from job and also punishment like several years imprisonment the corruption will reduce drastically

4. Lack of unity in the public:
                Public openly criticize corruption but interestingly there is no unity among the public to stop corruption. If the public stands united against corruption in such a way that no one is ready to offer bribes to get their work done. Then the corrupt officials will have no other option but to work in corruption free manner

5. Lack of accountability:
               In government there is a big trend of corruption this is because the lack of accountability. The employees and government officials do not perform to their per excellence. If they receive 100 files to be cleared in a week they may not even clear 50 of them in the week. The lack of accountability in government officials is the chief cause of corruption
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1.6 CAUSES OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT
         Some of the causes of under development include
1. Corruption:
           Corruption has proven to be the number one reason and cause of underdevelopment because many activities are involved in it ,which include over invoicing, looting of public funds when this are found in an organization there is no gate way for progress and development
2. Poverty:
             A state or nation that is poor or suffering from poverty will find it difficult to develop because there will be no money to use when some important issues that will spring up development arise
3. Bad leadership:
            Some leaders lack initiative and when they see what will improve the country they will fold their hands and watch even when the money is there .when such leader is leading the state or nation will find it difficult to move forward both industrially ,economically there by reducing development and indirectly supporting underdevelopment










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CHAPTER THREE

1.7 SOLUTIONS AND REMEEDIES FOR UNDER DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
          1. Corruption should be eliminated in other to promote and increase the rate of development in a country like Nigeria, corruption as one of the main cause of underdevelopment should not be found in any of the leaders of the country or citizens. And when this is done the country and its citizen will rejoice and testify on how the rate development was increased and it will reduce poverty and other consequences of corruption

         2. Nigeria should focus on the world bodies such as the UNESCO and the United Nations as well as the world back should be more inclined toward ensuring equitable distributions of the world’s national resources. The international community should sympathize and appreciate the problems of the poorer nations and try to solve them.

        3. The sharing of technology and information should continue at rapid phase so that the Nigeria can make avail of modern techniques of operations that are available in the more developed countries

        4. The developed nation’s should also accept the poorer nations like Nigeria and appreciate their independent status. Two much interference by developed nations in affairs of backward nation is not good. This affects the progress of that particular country

         5. Social and communication barriers need to be reduced so that there is a more friendly interaction between the two sections of the countries

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6. An air of superiority among the developed nations and the believe that underdeveloped nations are ethnically also backward must not be there as seen in Nigeria.  Racial superiority can affect the growth of the nation which is discriminated against.

1.8 SOME PAST NIGERIAN LEADERS AND THEIR CORRUPTION SCANDALS

1. Gowon administration (august 1996- July 1975)
                 Corruption for the most past of Yakubu Gowon administration was kept away from public view until 1995. However informed officials voiced concern during the Gowon administration two individuals from the middle belt of the country were accused of corruption. The Nigerian government controlled the news papers so the daily times and the new Nigerian gave great publicity to denunciation of the administration of Gom-walk and the federal commissioner Joseph Tarka by the two critics. A situation which m
ay signal a cause for exigent action on corruption.

2. Murtala administration (1975- February 1976)
                 In 1975 the administration of Murtala Mohammed made reformist changes, after the military coup brought him to power. The new government sacked a large number of prior government officials and civil servants, many of whom had been criticized for the misuse of power they wielded under the largely un educated military government of Gowon.

3. Obasanjo administration (February 1976-september 1979) and 1999 –may 2007
                The first administration of olusegun obasanjo was the continuation of the muritala Mohammed administration and was focused on completing the transition program to democracy but in 1979 various corruption scandals broke out under olusegun obasanjo’s
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presidency including one of the international dimension when his vice president was caught in cahoots with us congress men with cold hard cash (literally) in freezers. Some other acts of corruption tired to olusegun obasanjo including the Trans corps shares scandals that violated the code of conduct standard for public officers. Obasanjo was also said to widely facilitate his campaign to alter the constitution to get a third term in office by actively bribing the legislature. Futher deepening corruption at the highest levels, according to Wikipedia encyclopedia.

4. Goodluck Jonathan administration (2010-2015)
                 In 2014 , Nigeria ranked improved from 143rd to 136th position on transparency international’s corruption perception index .in late 2013 Nigerians’ then central bank governor lamido Sansui informed president Jonathan that the state oil company NNPC had failed to remit twenty billion us dollars of oil revenues which it owed the country . in addition to these the government of Goodluck Jonathan had several running scandals including the controversial BMW purchase by his aviation minster and two hundred and fifty million arms .











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CHAPTER FOUR

1.9 CONSEQUENSCES OF CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA
           The consequences of corruption are universal even if their could be variations in the level of states and non state response to this consequences. Simply puts: massive corruption in Nigeria has reduced the amount of money needed for development just as it does in any other political economy
1. corruption promotes poverty:
         Corruption leads to poverty because the whole money is been taken by only one person or some group of people thereby promoting poverty. But when corruption is not found in the citizens of the country the money and resources will be shared equally and corruption will reduce to the nearest minimum
2.creates political instability:
          This is because unrestricted corruption makes the state an unlimited allocator of wealth to individuals and groups. These characters of the state makes it possible for the politics of do or die affair in Nigeria, to take root, with politicians struggling to outcompete one another sometimes in violence manner

3. increase in crime:
           The youths have been systematically hijacked for selfish ends by unscrupulous politicians and ideologues. Some of those that were not hijacked have found interest in advance free fraud probably refers to yahoo or 419 in local parlance

4. Corruption promotes the existence of underground illegal economy:
            The possibility of bribes infiltrating the security system has made it easy for underground economies in counterfeits, adulterated and substandard products, especially drugs. Though this 12





Underground economy worth billions of dollars the governments do not benefit from taxes nor are the people benefiting from the dangerous effect of adulterated drugs

2.O CONCEQUENSES OF UNDERDEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
       Underdevelopment leads to the following
1. Poor investment:
         Under development in Nigeria would have been eradicated to some extent if only investors were attracted to it. Companies that would have invested in Nigeria are afraid of the level of development in Nigeria because of this they refuse to invest in Nigeria

2. Rise in poverty:
       Underdevelopment increase as poverty increase because the citizen of Nigeria are always suffering and also suffer from unpaid salaries which now make them to involve in different corrupt practices and on the other hand reducing the rate of development
    











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CHAPTER FIVE


2.1 SOLUTIONS AND POSSIBLE REMEDIES FOR CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA
        Below are the possible solutions for corruption
   1. Self-satisfaction:
      In this contest implies being content with what one has. When the leaders of Nigeria are satisfied with the salary they a paid and use them in the right way , the issue of embezzlement and money laundry will be history. Managers who are satisfied with what they are paid will not have time to indulge in corruption to make more money

2. Institution of strong anti corruption groups:
       Creating strong anti corruption institutions is another arsenal to win the fight against corruption this group is to work independently with the government to ensure transparency. Anyone who is caught in corrupt practice by the group should experience the consequences decided by the anti-corruption agency. That he is a minister or governor of a state should not be an excuse from facing the punishment he is to receive according to the constitution of Nigeria

3. Employment generation:
   The unemployed in the country find them self involved in corruption mainly because they want to make money to meet the demand of the day. Government and capable hands should Endeavour to generate more jobs for citizens to get employed and paid in return. A busy mind may find difficult to indulge in corruption because he is being paid adequately

2.2 LIST OF ANTI CORRUPTION AGENCIES IN NIGERIA:
1. EFCC (Economic and financial crime commission)
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2. NPF (Nigeria police force)
3. ICPC (independent corrupt practices and other offences commission
4. Code of conduct bureau

2.3 ROLES OF ANTI CORRUPTION AGENCIES IN REDUCING CORRUPTION
 1. To receive and investigate complaints from members of the public on allegations of corrupt malpractice and inappropriate cases persecute the offenders
2. Examine the practices systems and procedures of public bodies and where such systems aid corruption direct and supervise the review
3. Advice government officials and agencies on the ways corruption may be eliminated by them and changes in practices, systems or procedures compatible with the effective discharge of the duties of public bodies to reduce the likely hood or incidence of corruption
4. Educate the public against bribery, corruption and related offences
5. Enlist and foster public support in combating corruption

2.4 ROLES OF UNIVERSITIES, SCHOOLS AND RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS IN REDUCING CORRUPTION
1. Schools and universities should enlighten it students on the need to eliminate corruption in Nigeria
2. Religious organizations pray for the country and its leaders so as to reduce corruption
3. School and university authority should in introduce subjects and course that will deal more in corruption as it is done in Nigeria

CONCLUSION

Corruption is a canker worm that has eaten deep into the fabric of Nigeria .discussed are the many faces of corruption, causes, effect and the possible solutions. And corruption should be eliminated as early as possible to avoid further destruction which our country Nigeria is suffering from now
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REFRENCES
1. Morris, S.D.(1991) corruption and politics in contemporary Mexico. University of Alabama Tuscaloosa
2. Danladi (2007). Ngeria ranks 148 on the 2007 corruption index. Nairaland publication
3. uzochukwu ,M.O (2013). Challenges in nigeria and solutions on how to resolve them
4. oluwashina ,O. (2013). Nigeria official ban for bribe
5. Oyinola, O. (2011) corruption eradication in Nigeria
6. The story report .the commission of inquiry into the admission of lagos town council
7. Freezez $100m accounts. A publication of vanguard Nigeria
8. World bank group 2013 poverty and equity
9. Oxford learners dictionary
10. mirriam Webster
11. olajide aluko .nigeria and british after gowon, African affairs .vol 76
12. chinua achebe. A man of the people 1966

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